Nationwide Day… The golden annals that have been by no means scripted

By Anas Alyusuf

JEDDAH — It was a momentous speech that lit the primary ardour towards unity and the march of individuals, led by the King Abdul Aziz, towards an excellent future. King Abdul Aziz, based on intellectuals and historians, was one of many leaders who supplied nice companies to their nations with their great and tireless efforts, they usually influenced the event and progress of human societies.

The backstory of this story offers inspiration to maintain this developmental march, which the Saudi management is finishing up systematically.

This analysis is an try and make clear the information via inspecting the obtainable paperwork below the lens of analysis and excavation in order to have an in depth documentation of the historical past of contemporary Saudi Arabia, which culminated within the “Declaration of the unification of the nation and renaming it the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.”

The epitome of this was contained in an interview of King Abdul Aziz, founder of contemporary Saudi Arabia, with the “Voice of Hejaz” newspaper. Muhammad Saleh Nassif, director of the newspaper, held a singular discuss with the king and revealed it below the title: “Momentous discuss of his majesty the beloved king” within the newspaper’s difficulty no. 23 dated Monday 11 Jamad Al-Awwal 1351 AH, comparable to Sept. 12, 1932, throughout which the king spoke about quite a lot of key matters and that was held a number of days earlier than the declaration of the unification of the nation.

What King Abdul Aziz said included the next:

“Crucial factor that I’m striving for is to make sure safety in all components of my nation, together with city and rural areas, and even within the desolate desert areas…”

In one other context, the King mentioned: “My first responsibility is to make sure the march of my nation and its individuals alongside the trail of the righteous ancestors, by way of delivering everybody the rights that he’s entitled to, and facilitate individuals in numerous social strata to reside in prosperity and safety in addition to to try to develop the nation’s infrastructure amenities and set up the programs needed for its administration.”

Whereas reaffirming the resolve to go forward alongside this path, the King concluded his talks by saying: “In case you are referred to as to a matter in which there’s glory of the Arabs, and the welfare and unity of the Arabs are supposed, therefore such an invite is only for the sake of God. I will likely be, as is my customized, one among the many members of the Arab Ummah, and I’ll supply each doable help on this regard.”

Story of Kingdom’s unification declaration

Ten days later (after the interview), particularly at 9 o’clock within the morning on Thursday, Sept. 23, 1932, Prince Faisal Bin Abdul Aziz, the viceroy of Hejaz, introduced the official beginning of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by reciting Royal Decree No. 2716 issued on Jamad Al-Awwal 17, 1351 AH comparable to Sept. 18, 1932.

The declaration was constructed from the federal government home within the Hamidiya Palace within the Ajyad district of Makkah. The announcement included King Abdul Aziz’s approval to vary the identify “Kingdom of Hejaz, Najd and its annexes” to “The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.” Artillery fired 101 rounds to salute that superb day.

Prince Faisal had arrived in Makkah on the night of the day prior to this, Wednesday, from Taif. After daybreak, Abdullah Bin Muhammad Al-Fadl, assistant to the viceroy of Hejaz, vice chairman of the Shoura Council and vice chairman of the Council of Deputies (Majlis Al-Wukala), and Fuad Hamza, advisor to the King and deputy minister of overseas affairs, additionally arrived.

Fuad Hamza narrated in his memoirs that was revealed by King Abdulaziz Basis for Analysis and Archives (Darah): “On Wednesday, Jamad Al Awwal 20, 1351 AH, comparable to Sept. 22, 1932 AD, the King’s approval got here in response to our telegrams concerning the preparations for the declaration of the unification of the Kingdom.

“In one other telegram, the King knowledgeable about those that despatched telegrams, thanking him for that and agreeing to the thought. I produced a replica of the order to be revealed. There have been additionally directions for the princes within the annexes of the assertion concerning the work required to be undertaken by them.

“I wrote a word to Tawfiq Hamza, head of the Publications Registry, and despatched it to the representatives (ambassadors of overseas international locations). It was determined to go to Makkah to make the official declaration on the holy metropolis.”

What’s behind the declaration?

These could also be among the titles of the story of declaring the unification of the nation and renaming it the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, whose 92nd anniversary is being celebrated nowadays, however there are various particulars that need to be researched, documented, studied and analyzed in depth.

It’s outstanding that this subject is normally handled in a basic means with out going into depth or element and even questioning or researching the encompassing backgrounds and circumstances. Even within the context of main matters of analysis and different research, I’ve to this point not seen any examine that handled this subject in a complete and unbiased method. Additionally, among the heroes of this story and the makers of its occasions have to this point not been documented. Furthermore, the sources about a few of them are scarce.

The aim of this introduction is to focus on the vital points of this story and its background by tracing the historic sources. Referring to the official Umm Al-Qura gazette, we discover that it was revealed in Subject No. 406 dated Friday 22 Jamad Al-Awwal 1351 AH, comparable to Sept. 23, 1932, an in depth information prominently on the entrance web page, below the title “Reworking the identify of the Kingdom of Hejaz, Najd and its annexes to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.”

Its content material was {that a} group of outstanding figures held a number of conferences at Abdullah Al-Fadl’s home in Taif, they usually agreed in unison to submit a petition to King Abdul Aziz asking for his approval on:

1- Convert the identify of the nation to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2- Enacting a Legislation of Governance and Legislation of Succession.

They circulated this concept in all of the cities of the Kingdom of Hejaz to mobilize in style assist for it, and subsequently tons of of telegrams streamed in, in assist of the proposal, and King Abdul Aziz issued approval for a similar.

In my evaluation, it’s essential to look first on the historic backgrounds, surrounding circumstances, incidents and occasions that preceded and coincided with this declaration domestically, regionally and internationally.

Furthermore, there’s additionally a have to fastidiously contemplate King Abdul Aziz’s coping with the authorized and constitutional points since his entry into Hejaz, and the built-in organizational developments that led to the steadiness of the ruling system within the Kingdoms of Hejaz and Najd that paved the way in which for declaring the unification of the nation, in accordance with the next sequence:

1- The election of the Nationwide Shoura Council 1 headed by Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Shaibi, and that was in the course of the yr 1343 AH — 1924.

2- The election of the Nationwide Shoura Council 2 headed by Muhammad Al-Marzouqi, and that was at first of the yr 1344 AH — 1925.

3- The institution of the Judicial Presidency at first of the yr 1344 AH — 1925.

4- The appointment of Prince Faisal as Viceroy of Hejaz and the formation of an Advisory Council to help him, and that was in the course of the yr 1344 AH — 1926.

5- The election of the Consultative Constituent Authority headed by Sheikh Abdul Qader Al-Shaibi, in the course of the yr 1344 AH — 1926, and it served because the “Structure Drafting Committee.”

6- The formation of the Consultative Shoura Council, headed by Sharaf Adnan, and that was on the finish of the yr 1344 AH — 1926.

7- The issuance of the Fundamental Directions for the Kingdom of Hejaz at first of the yr 1345 AH — 1926, which was thought to be the constitutional foundation and the start of the executive, political, and organizational integration of the state.

8- Formation of the Normal Consultative Council headed by the Viceroy of Hejaz, and that was at first of the yr 1345 AH — 1926.

9- Formation of the Inspection and Reform Committee at first of the yr 1346 AH — 1927, and its outputs are thought-about as the primary program of administrative reform.

10- Issuance of the Shoura Council Legislation and its reconstitution headed by the Legal professional Normal, and that was at first of the yr 1346 AH — 1927.

11- Persevering with the method of reorganizing authorities companies and constructions via the institution of committees and our bodies with particular duties; the institution of quite a lot of directorates and ministries; the issuance of dozens of laws and laws that established the common and authorized development of presidency work, and the completion of the institution of the three authorities — judicial, organizational and govt.

12- Institution of the Council of Deputies in the course of 1350 AH — 1931.

All this led to the declaration of the unification of the nation and renaming it the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1351 AH — 1932. It may be mentioned that it was a pivotal matter within the meticulously deliberate constructing of the state. The signatories of the doc or the concept that Fuad Hamza described as “the system” selected it with utmost carefulness and diligence.

Key figures behind the declaration

I discover it vital to precisely determine those that signed the “proposed system” particularly when making an allowance for the truth that the Umm Al-Qura gazette revealed the names of a few of them solely and some of those names have been much like the names of different personalities, resembling Abdullah Al-Fadl for instance. All of them have been among the many main political, ministerial, consultative, administrative and financial figures throughout that interval.

However what’s outstanding was the extent of their schooling and the variety of their backgrounds and specializations within the huge realms of the Islamic Shariah, administration, legislation, commerce, laws and constitutions, finance, economics, schooling, safety, politics and worldwide relations, journalism, media and so forth.

I used to be eager to comply with their profile, and doc points of their good profession and the noble positions they held. This explains the explanations for his or her choice to tackle this process and the standard of experiences that every of them acquired.

These famend figures embrace the next:

1- Fuad Hamza: He’s Professor Fuad (Bey) Bin Amin Bin Ali Hamza. He was educated in Lebanon and obtained a certificates from the Dar Al-Muallimeen after which joined the American College of Beirut. He labored as a instructor after which obtained a level in legislation.

Fuad was fluent in each English and French. He joined the service of King Abdul Aziz after the annexation of Hejaz, and assumed quite a lot of positions, together with Assistant Director of Overseas Affairs, member of the Inspection and Reform Committee, the Committee for the Enactment of Guidelines and Rules, and the Government Committee to Help the Public Prosecutor. He additionally labored as an advisor within the Political Division of the Royal Court docket.

Fuad served as the primary deputy minister of overseas affairs after its institution, and a member of the Council of Deputies. He was appointed Minister Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (Ambassador) to France after which to Turkey. He was then appointed Minister of State for Building and City Works and Funding Firms on the Ministry of Finance. He held the function of head and member of quite a lot of delegations and committees and was assigned with quite a lot of duties.

2- Saleh Shata: Saleh Bin Abu Bakr Bin Muhammad Shata. He obtained his schooling from outstanding students from his household and among the many students of Hejaz, and he obtained a license to show on the Grand Mosque in Makkah. He was the primary individual to take over the Directorate of Schooling after its formation in the course of the Saudi period. He was assigned the place of assistant to the Viceroy of Hejaz, and was elected as a member of the Consultative Constituent Meeting.

He was additionally appointed as a member of the Inspection and Reform Committee; member of the Shoura Council; then member of the Council of Deputies, and have become Vice President of the Shoura Council.

3- Abdullah Al-Shaibi: Sheikh Abdullah Bin Abdul-Qadir Bin Ali Al-Shaibi, the second senior keeper of the Holy Kaaba within the Saudi period. He obtained his schooling on the Grand Mosque by the hands of the students of his time. He took over the presidency of the Fee for the Promotion of Advantage and the Prevention of Vice, and was appointed member of the Normal Shoura Council. He took over the presidency of the Affiliation for the Declare of Endowments of the Two Holy Mosques, and the presidency of the Medical Ambulance Authority. He was appointed member of the Shoura Council and have become the second vice chairman of the Shoura.

4- Muhammad Sharaf Rida: Muhammad Sharaf Bin Rida Bin Mansour Al Yahya. He obtained his schooling from non-public professors in addition to from quite a lot of students on the Grand Mosque. He served in quite a lot of jobs and companies in the course of the Hashemite period.

Rida was the primary to take over the administration of public finance, which later grew to become the Ministry of Finance after the entry of King Abdul Aziz in Hejaz. He was appointed member of the Normal Consultative Council, then a member of the Shoura Council, and have become the second deputy head of the Shoura Council, an advisor to the King, after which appointed as member of the Council of Deputies.

5- Abdul Wahab: Abdul Wahab Bin Ahmad Bin Abdul Wahab. He was educated by the students of his time and began instructing on the Grand Mosque. He moved to Turkey and studied legislation and was fluent within the Turkish language. He returned to Hejaz after it was annexed to Saudi rule, and was commissioned by King Abdul Aziz to prepare monetary issues in Asir.

Abdul Wahab was elected president of the primary municipal council in Makkah in the course of the Saudi period, and he headed the municipal division in Makkah. An order was issued appointing him as a member of the Shoura Council, after which he assumed the administration of endowments in Makkah.

6- Ibrahim Al-Fadl: Sheikh Ibrahim Bin Abdul Rahman Bin Abdullah Al-Fadl. He obtained his schooling from the Unaizah colleges in addition to from quite a lot of students of his time after which continued his schooling in India. He was fluent in English and Urdu and labored for Al-Fadl Company (Brokers of King Abdul Aziz) in India.

He returned to Hejaz and labored within the Finance Company, after which held quite a lot of positions, together with the second assistant to the Viceroy of Hejaz, head of the Viceroy’s workplace and the presidency of the Council of Deputies, member of the Council of Deputies and the Shoura Council, along with being member of quite a lot of committees. He had additionally been assigned with quite a lot of inspection duties.

7- Muhammad Abdul Qadir Mughairabi: Sheikh Muhammad Bin Abdul Qadir Mughairabi Fatih. He obtained bachelor’s diploma in economics and political science from the American College of Istanbul and a fellowship in worldwide legislation and politics from the College of Lausanne. He was fluent in English, Turkish, Italian, German and French. He labored as advisor to the emir of Hail, Saud Bin Abdul Aziz Al-Rasheed, and moved to quite a lot of international locations as a result of unstable political scenario in Hejaz.

King Abdul Aziz summoned him after the annexation of Hejaz. He participated within the group of the Islamic Convention and was chosen as a member of the delegation representing King Abdul Aziz within the convention. He was appointed member of the Shoura Council.

He was additionally assigned quite a lot of duties and took part within the membership of many councils and committees, such because the Schooling Council, the Committee for the Declare of Endowments of the Two Holy Mosques, and the Financial Authority.

8- Rasheed Al-Nasser: Sheikh Rashid (Basha) Bin Nasser Bin Rashid Bin Laila. He was educated from the Hail colleges after which by the hands of quite a lot of students of his time. He was fluent within the Turkish language. He held quite a lot of positions and was assigned missions in the course of the reign of the Al-Rashid emirate in Hail and was appointed as their agent in Istanbul.

King Abdul Aziz delegated him and assigned him quite a lot of duties. He participated within the Nationwide Convention, and was appointed as a member of the Shoura Council. Then an order was issued to nominate him as Consul Normal and Chargé d’ Affairs to Iraq, then appointed Consul Normal and licensed agent of King Abdul Aziz in Syria.

9- Ahmed Banaja: Sheikh Ahmed (Afandi) Bin Abdul Rahman Bin Yusuf Banaja. He obtained his schooling from Al-Rashdiya Faculty in Jeddah and continued his schooling from the students of his time. He spoke each Turkish and English fluently. He labored because the secretary of the Municipal Fund in Makkah and took over the Ministry of Finance in the course of the Hashemite period.

Banaja had a serious function in establishing the mint in Makkah and supervised its work. He loved the patronage of King Abdul Aziz and remained near official circles. Nonetheless, the sources didn’t point out whether or not he held any authorities place in the course of the Saudi period, apart from his membership in some committees associated to business and financial issues.

10- Abdullah Al-Fadl: Sheikh Abdullah Bin Muhammad Bin Abdullah Al-Salih Al-Fadl. He studied at Unaizah colleges after which moved to India and continued his schooling there and labored within the Al-Fadl Company. His political insights got here to limelight whereas he was in Bombay, the place British affect prevailed on the time. He grew to become proficient in English and Urdu languages.

Al-Fadl joined early within the service of King Abdul Aziz and have become his agent in Aden. He was assigned quite a lot of duties, and headed quite a lot of delegations and committees, moreover being appointed as a member of the Everlasting Committee on the Royal Court docket. He’s thought-about as one of the outstanding assistants to Prince Faisal Bin Abdul Aziz, as he held the place of Assistant to the Viceroy of Hejaz, First Vice President of the Shoura Council, and Deputy Chairman of the Council of Deputies.

11- Khaled Al-Qarqani: Sheikh Khalid (Abul Waleed) Bin Ahmed Bin Ayyad Al-Houd Al-Qarqani, who belongs to the Tunisian island of Kerkennah. King Abdul Aziz referred to as him Abu Al-Wali.

He was educated in Tripoli and graduated from the Rasheediya Faculty. He was fluent in French, Italian and Turkish languages. He participated in anti-colonial wrestle after which got here to Hejaz and engaged in commerce.

Al-Qarqani joined the service of King Abdul Aziz, and was appointed first assistant to the Viceroy of Hejaz. He was additionally appointed as an advisor to the Royal Court docket, headed a number of delegations and was assigned quite a lot of inspection duties. He was a particular envoy of King Abdul Aziz to Germany and met the German chief Hitler.

12- Muhammad Sharaf Adnan: Muhammad Sharaf (Basha) Bin Ahmed Adnan Bin Abdul Muttalib Al Ghalib. He obtained elementary schooling from quite a lot of non-public lecturers, after which continued to realize information by the hands of the students of his time. He left Hejaz and continued his schooling in Egypt and Turkey. In response to sources, he mastered a number of languages.

Adnan returned as quickly as King Abdul Aziz entered Makkah, and was assigned quite a lot of positions resembling Advisor to the Viceroy of Hejaz, member of the Nationwide Shoura Council and the Normal Consultative Council, which was shaped below the chairmanship of the Viceroy of Hejaz. He was additionally appointed member of the Inspection and Reform Committee. He chaired the classes of the Shoura Council on behalf of the Viceroy of Hejaz.

13- Hamed Ruwaihi: Sheikh Hamed Bin Ahmed Amin Ruwaihi. He was educated in Jeddah, and engaged in quite a lot of jobs till he grew to become a notary in Jeddah. Then an order was issued appointing him as head of the Court docket of the Viceroy of Hejaz. He assumed quite a lot of obligations on the Ministry of Overseas Affairs and the Ministry of Inside and was assigned to hold out quite a lot of duties.

When the royal order was issued to type the Analysis and Audit Committee, headed by the Viceroy of Hejaz, to look into the affairs of presidency departments and to scrutinize performances, Ruwaihi was appointed a member. He was additionally appointed member of the Promotion and Disciplinary Committee.

14- Hussein Basalama: Sheikh Hussein Bin Abdullah Bin Muhammad Basalama. He obtained his elementary schooling from Makkah after which joined the Rashidiya Faculty in Taif and continued his schooling by the hands of the students of his time in Makkah and Taif. He pursued increased research in Syria and Egypt.

Basalama labored first as a instructor after which as secretary to the Senate in the course of the Hashemite period. He is among the most outstanding students, writers and historians. He assumed administrative obligations and official duties after the entry of King Abdul Aziz to Hejaz.

He was elected member of the Consultative Constituent Meeting, after which member of the Normal Shoura Council. He was additionally chosen for the membership within the Hajj Council, the Schooling Council, the Committee for Endowment Claims of the Two Holy Mosques, and the Fee for the Promotion of Advantage. He was additionally appointed a member of the Shoura Council.

15- Muhammad Saleh Naseef: Sheikh Muhammad Saleh Bin Hassan Naseef. He obtained his schooling from the Jeddah colleges and continued his self-education with quite a lot of students of his time. He’s thought-about as one of many notables of Jeddah and a outstanding determine of the Naseef household, one of many oldest households in Jeddah that was involved with spreading forensic science.

Naseef is among the pioneers of journalism and printing, and he based the newspaper Hejaz Submit (Bareed Al-Hejaz), after which Voice of Hejaz (Sawt Al-Hejaz), along with the Salafi Library and Printing Press in Makkah. He assumed the presidency of the Jeddah municipality and took part within the institution of the Hashemite Central Financial institution.

Throughout the Saudi period, he held the presidency of the Jeddah endowments and was appointed director of Al-Ahsa Finance and director of Finance and Customs of Jazan. He additionally served as a member of the Shoura Council.

16- Abdul Wahab Attar: Sheikh Abdul Wahab Bin Ahmad Bin Abdul Wahab Attar. He was a scholar at Makkah elementary colleges and continued receiving his schooling from quite a lot of students of the Grand Mosque. He held quite a lot of posts in the course of the Hashemite period resembling president of the Actual Property Council, member of the Senate and the Helpful Council. He’s thought-about as one of many notables and retailers of Makkah. He left Hejaz because of political circumstances and returned after the entry of King Abdul Aziz.

Attar grew to become a member of the Normal Shoura Council after which the Shoura Council, along with his membership in quite a lot of associations and committees such because the Medical Ambulance Society, the Affiliation for Endowment Claims of the Two Holy Mosques, and the Rental Committee.

17- Mahdi Al-Qal’ali: Professor Mahdi (Bey) Bin Qadri Bin Saleh Al-Qal’ali. He hailed from the historic fortress of Aleppo. King Abdul Aziz referred to as him the reformer, so he was generally known as ‘Mahdi Bey, the reformer.’ He obtained schooling from Iraq after which joined the Ottoman military. He was despatched to Madinah and was concerned in police work in the course of the Hashemite period.

Al-Qal’ali was assigned to oversee the police division in Madinah after he joined the Saudi authorities after which he was transferred to Makkah. An order was issued to ascertain the Normal Police Directorate and appoint Mahdi Bey as its director, which was the Public Safety Directorate.

Throughout his reign, the Police Faculty in Makkah titled ‘King Fahd Safety School’ was established, along with the institution of colleges for orphans and the poor, and houses for the aged.

From the aforementioned descriptions, it’s clear that these individuals are sagacious “statesmen” of numerous backgrounds and experiences. Their conferences occurred formally in the home of Abdullah Bin Muhammad Al-Fadl, the chief aide to the Viceroy of Hejaz and deputy head of the Council of Deputies.

The placement of his residence was within the Salama neighborhood in Taif, particularly within the space between Al-Salama Roundabout and Al-Kateb Palace, to the precise of the highway resulting in the Qarwa district.

These notables had signed an official doc on the ‘proposed system’ that was submitted to King Abdul Aziz, and mobilized in style assist for him, as a result of King’s curiosity in in style participation, and the proof for that’s quite a few.

As for the telegrams circulating from the individuals of sure cities, people and even different officers, they’re in truth telegrams in assist of that ‘proposed system’ and that was evident from their texts.

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